تأثیر کمیت و کیفیت آب آبیاری بر خصوصیات کمی گیاه دارویی رزماری (Rosmarinus officinalis L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت، واحد زاهدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، زاهدان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت، واحد زاهدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، زاهدان، ایران

3 استادیار، عضو هیات علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی بلوچستان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر توأم کمیت و کیفیت آب آبیاری بر خصوصیات کمی گیاه داوریی رزماری، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های یک‌بار خرد شده و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در ایستگاه تولید نهال و بذر شهرداری ایران‌شهر در سال زراعی 1396 انجام شد. تیمارهای مورد مطالعه شامل چهار سطح آبیاری (100=1I، 85=2I، 70=3I و 55=4I درصد جبران کمبود رطوبت خاک) به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی و سه کیفیت آب (آب چاه =1Q، فاضلاب تصفیه شده =2Q و آبیاری تلفیقی (50 درصد آب چاه و 50 درصد فاضلاب تصفیه شده)=3Q) به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که شاخص‌های ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه زایا، وزن خشک اندام رویشی و بهره‌وری آب حاصله در آبیاری با فاضلاب تصفیه شده نسبت به آبیاری با آب چاه افزایش به‌ترتیب 6/18، 3/19، 2/13 و 3/13 درصدی و نسبت به آبیاری تلفیقی افزایش به‌ترتیب 4/5، 9/5، 1/4 و 8/3 درصدی داشت. همچنین صرفه‌جویی 348 متر مکعبی آب سطح تأمین 85 درصد نسبت به 100 جبران کمبود رطوبت خاک در حالی تنها باعث کاهش 1/7، 9/6 و 6/4 درصدی به‌ترتیب در شاخص‌های ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه زایا و وزن خشک اندام رویشی شد، که افزایش 3/11 درصدی بهره‌وری آب را به‌دنبال داشت. لذا با در نظر گرفتن مسائل مربوط به کمبود آب، می‌توان سطح تأمین 85 درصد کمبود رطوبت خاک با فاضلاب تصفیه شده، را به‌عنوان تیمار برتر و راهکار مناسب برای مقابله با بحران آب و افزایش بهره‌وری آب، جهت حرکت به سمت یک سامانه کشاورزی پایدار توصیه نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Quantity and Quality of Irrigation on Quantitative Traits of Rosmarinus Officinalis L.

نویسندگان [English]

  • Asa Rigi Karvandri 1
  • Ahmad Mehraban 2
  • HamidReza Ganjali 2
  • Khaled Miri 3
  • HamidReza Mobser 2
1 PhD student, Department of Agronomy, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Member of Balochistan Agriculture Research Center
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the quantity and quality of irrigation on quantitative traits of Rosmarinus Officinalis L., an experiment was conducted in center of seed and plant production of IranShahr municipality in 2017. The treatments were laid out in single-split strip plots based on randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The treatments were comprised of irrigation regimes consisted of four irrigation levels (100, 85, 70 and 55 percent water replacement) in main plot and sub plot consisted of three water quality (groundwater, wastewater and integrated irrigation (50 percent with groundwater and 50 percent with wastewater)). Results showed that dry weight, number of shoots, plant height and water productivity in irrigation with wastewater increased 13.2, 19.3, 18.6 and 13.3 percent respectively and irrigation with integrated irrigation increased 4.1, 5.9, 5.4 and 3.8 percent respectively compared with irrigation with well water. Also in comparison to 100 and 85 percent water replacement, parsimony of water usage equal 348 m3 (15 percent) achieved. Moreover dry weight, number of shoots and plant height decreased 4.6, 6.9 and 7.1 percent respectively but water use efficiency increased 11.3 percent. According to the results, 85 percent water replacement with wastewater, in addition to saving water consumption, provides better use of soil moisture and sunlight. Thus this treatment can be considered as suitable approach to cope with the water crisis and achieve a sustainable agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deficit irrigation
  • Drip Irrigation
  • Integrated Irrigation
  • Wastewater
  • Water productivity
اسدی، ر.، حسن‌پور، ف.، مهربانی، م.، باقی‌زاده. ا. و کاراندیش، ف. 1397. تأثیر دور و دو روش آبیاری بر شاخص‌های رشد و بهره‌وری آب رزماری. مجله پژوهش آب در کشاورزی. 32 (4): 567-579.
بی‌نام. 1396. سال‌نامه آماری سازمان هواشناسی کشور، انتشارات سازمان هواشناسی.
حسین­پور، ا.، حق­نیا، غ.، علیزاده، ا. و فتوت، ا. 1388. بررسی تغییرات کیفیت شیمیایی فاضلاب خام و پساب شهری در اثر عبور از ستون­های خاک. مجله آب و خاک. 23: 45-56.
حیدری، م. رضاپور، ع. 1390. اثر تنش خشکی و گوگرد بر عملکرد دانه، کلروفیل و غلظت عناصر معدنی در گیاه داوریی سیاه‌دانه. مجله تولید و فرآوری محصولات باغی و زراعی. 1 (1): 81-90.
رجبی‌سرخنی، م. و قائمی، ع. 1391. بررسی اثرات کاربرد پساب تصفیه شده و کودهای شیمیایی بر عملکرد کلم بروکلی. مجله مدیریت آب و آبیاری. 2(2): 13-24.
علی‌نژاد جهرمی، ه.، محمدخانی، ع. و صالحی، م. ح. 1391. تأثیر استفاده از پساب فاضلاب شهری شهرکرد بر رشد، عملکرد و تجمع سرب و کادمیم در گیاه دارویی بادرنجبویه. مجله علوم و فنون کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی. 16 (60): 173-185.
Al-khamisi S., Prathapar S.A., and Ahmed M. 2013. Conjunctive use of reclaimed water and groundwater in crop rotations. Agricultural Water Management. 116: 228-234.
Asadi R., Kouhi N., and Yazdanpanah N. 2012. Applicability of micro irrigation system on cotton yield and water use efficiency. Journal of Food, Agriculture and environment. 10: 302-306.
Bazazi N., Khodambashi M., and Mohammadi S.h. 2013. The effect of drought stress on morphological characteristics and yield components of medicinal plant fenugreek. Journal of Crop Production and Processing. 3(8): 11-22.
Blum J, Herpin U., Melfi A.J., and Montes C.R. 2012. Soil properties in a sugarcane plantation after the application of treated sewage effluent and phosphogypsum in Brazil. Agricultural Water Management. 115:203-216.
Cao Y., Tian Y., Gao L., and Chen Q. 2016. Attenuating the negative effects of irrigation with saline water on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) by application of straw biological-reactor. Agricultural Water Management. 163: 169-179
Cirelli G.L., Consoli S., Licciardello F., Aiello R., Giuffrida F., and Leonardi C. 2012. Treated municipal wastewater reuse in vegetable production. Agricultural Water Management. 104: 163-170.
Colak Y.B., Yazar A., Sesveren S., and Colak I. 2017. Evaluation of yield and leaf water potantial (LWP) for eggplant under varying irrigation regimes using surface and subsurface drip systems. Scientia Horticulturae. 219: 10-21.
Douh B., Mguidiche A., Bhouri-Khila S., Mansour M., Harrabi R., and Boujlben A. 2013.Yield and water use efficiency of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) conducted under subsurface drip irrigation system in a Mediterranean climate. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2 (4): 46–51.
Elbana T.A., Ramadan M.A., Gaber H.M., Bahnassy M.H., Kishk F.M., and Selim H.M. 2013. Heavy metals accumulation and spatial distribution in long term wastewater irrigated soils. Environmental Chemical Engineering. 1: 925–933.
FAO. 2002. Crops and drops: making the best use of water for agriculture, p. 28. Rome, Italy: FAO. Information brochure.
Ghanbari A., AbediKoupai S., and Talaeei J. 2006. Effect of irrigation with wastewater on yield of wheat and some soil properties in the Sistan. Journal of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources. 4: 45-51.
Gheysari M., Mirlatifi S.M., Homaee M., Asadi M.E., and Hoogenboom G. 2009. Nitrate leaching in a silage maize field under different irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer rates. Agricultural Water Management. 96 (6): 946-954.
Heidarpour M., Mostafazadeh-Fard B., AbediKoupai J., and Malekian R. 2007. The effects of treated wastewater on soil chemical properties using subsurface and surface irrigation methods. Agricultural Water Management. 90: 87-94.
Hirich A.; Ragab R., Choukr R., and Rami A. 2013. The of deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on sweet corn: experimental and modeling study using SALTMED model. Irrigation Sconce. 32: 205-219.
Karandish F. 2016. Improved soil-plant water dynamics and economic water use efficiency in a maize field under locally water stress. Agronomy and Soil Science. 62 (9): 1311-1323.
Khai N., Tuan P., Vinh C., and Oborn I. 2008. Effects of using wastewater as nutrient sources on soil chemical properties in peri periurban agricultural systems. Journal of Science, Earth Sciences. 24: 87-95.
Khazaei H.R., Nadjafi F., and Bannayan M. 2008. Effect of irrigation frequency and planting density on herbage biomass and oil production of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). Industrial Crops and Products. 27: 315-321.
Khosh-Khui M., Ashiri F., and Sahakhiz M.J. 2012. Effects of irrigation regimes on antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 1: 1-7.
Leithy S., El-Meseir T., and Abdallah E. 2006. Effect of bio fertilizer, cell stabilizer and irrigation regime on Rosemary herbage oil yield and quality. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2 (10): 773-779.
Magesan G.N., Williamson J.C., Yeates G.W., and Lloyd-Jones A.R. 2000. Wastewater C:N ratio effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and potential mechanisms for recovery. Bio Resource Technology. 71:21-27.
Malash N., Flowers T.J., and Ragab R. 2005. Effect of irrigation systems and water management practices using saline and non-saline water on tomato production. Agricultural Water Management. 78(1-2): 25-38
Meli S., Porto M., Belligno A., Bufo S.A., Mazzatura A., and Scopa A. 2002. Influence of irrigation with lagooned urban wastewater on chemical and microbiological soil parameters in a citrus orchard under Mediterranean condition. Science of the Total Environment. 285(1-3): 69-77.
Mojiri A. 2011. Effects of municipal wastewater on physical and chemical properties of saline soil. Journal of Biology, Environ Science. 14: 71-76.
Munir J., Rusan M., Hinnawi S., and Rusan L. 2007. Long term effect of wastewater irrigation of forage crops on soil and plant quality parameters. Desalination. 215: 143-152.
Najafi P., and Nasr S. 2009. Comparison effects of wastewater on soil chemical properties in three irrigation methods. Research on Crops; 10:277-280.
Nicolas E., Ferrandez T., Rubio S., Alarcon J., and Sanchez J. 2008. Annual water status, development, and flowering patterns for Rosmarinus officinalis plants under different irrigation conditions. Hortscience. 43: 1580-1585.
Panahpoor E., Afyuni M., Homaee M., and Hoodaji M. 2008. Cd, Cr, and Co motion in soil treated with sewage sludge and salts of the metals and their uptake by vegetable crops case study in east Isfahan. Journal of Water and Wastewater. 67: 9-17.
Paris P., Matteo G.D., Tarchi M., Tosi L., Spaccino L., and Lauteri M. 2018. Precision subsurface drip irrigation increases yield while sustaining water use efficiency in Mediterranean poplar bioenergy plantations. Forest Ecology and Management. 409: 749–756.
Rajoob A., Massadeh A., and Omari M.N. 2008. Evaluation of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe levels in Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) medicinal plant and soils in selected zones in Jordan. Environment Monitor Assessment. 140: 61-68.
Rattan R., Datta S., Chhonkar P., Suribabu K., and Singh A. 2005. Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 109: 310-322.
Rezapour S., Kouhinezhad P., and Samadi A. 2017. The potential ecological risk of soil trace metals following over five decades of agronomical practices in a semi-arid environment. Chemistry and Ecology, 68-78.
Romano C.S., Abadi K., Reppeto V., Vojnov A., and Moreno S. 2009. Synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial activity of rosemary plus butyrate derivatives. Food Chemistry. 115 (2): 456-461.
Sardans J., Roda F., and Penuelas J. 2005. Effects of water and a nutrient pulse supply on Rosmarinus officinalis growth, nutrient content and flowering in the field. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 53: 1-11.
Sarker K.K., Akanda M.A., Biswas S.H., Roy D.K., Khatun A., and Goftar M.A. 2016. Field performance of alternate wetting and drying furrow irrigation on tomato crop growth, yield, water use efficiency, quality and profitability. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 15(10): 2380–2392.
Shahrokhnia M.H., and Sepaskhah A.L. 2017. Physiologic and agronomic traits in safflower under various irrigation strategies, planting methods and nitrogen fertilization. Industrial Crops and Products. 95: 126-139.
Silva H., Sagardia S., Seguel O., Torres C., Franck N., Tapia C., and Cardemil L. 2010. Effect of water availability on growth and water use efficiency for biomass and gel production in Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller). Indian Crop Production. 31: 20–27.
Soroush F., Mousavi F., Razmjoo K.H., and Mostafazadeh-Fard B. 2008. Effect of treated wastewater on uptake of some elements by Turf grass in different soil textures. Journal of Water and Soil, 22, 285-294.
SouDakoure M.Y., Mermoud A., Yacouba H., and Boivin P. 2013. Impacts of irrigation with industrial treated wastewater on soil properties. Geoderma. 200–201:31-39.
Sreevalli Y., Baskaran K., Chandrashekara R., and Kuikkarni R. 2001. Preliminary observations on the effect of irrigation frequency and genotypes on yield and alkaloid concentration in periwinkle. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science. 22: 356-358.
Taiz L., and Ziger E. 1991. Plant Physiology. Benjamin Publication. p. 346-356.
Terpinc P., Bezjak M., and Abramovic H. 2009. A kinetic model for evaluation of the antioxidant activity of several rosemary extracts. Food Chemistry. 115(2): 740-744