اندازه‌گیری و شبیه‌سازی دینامیکی حرکت آب در خاک با تأکید بر جذب ریشه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد آبیاری و زهکشی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

سازوکار جذب آب توسط ریشه نقش مهمی را در مدیریت آب مورد نیاز کشاورزی ایفا می­کند. هدف از انجام این مطالعه، بررسی توزیع رطوبت و جذب توسط ریشه در خاک پیرامون یک درخت سیب می­باشد. جهت پایش رطوبت پیرامون درخت تحت آبیاری سطحی از جدیدترین دستگاه TDR از نوع Profile Probe استفاده شد. لذا در طرفین تنه درخت، 10 لوله ویژه به طول 1 متر و به فاصله 30 سانتی­متر از هم در خاک نصب گردید و به­منظور شبیه­سازی رطوبت از مدل HYDRUS-2D استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد بیش­ترین تغییرات رطوبت در عمق صفر تا 40 سانتی­متری اتفاق افتاده است و این تغییرات رطوبت در لایه­های سطحی بیش­تر از لایه­های زیرین می­باشد. مقدار جذب آب توسط ریشه نیز بیش­تر در عمق 40-0 سانتی­متری و در فاصله شعاعی 60-0 سانتی­متری اتفاق افتاد. میزان جذب با افزایش فاصله شعاعی از درخت کاسته شده است. مدل HYDRUS نیز در تمام نقاط به خوبی توانسته است مقادیر رطوبت را شبیه­سازی کند به جز در برخی از نقاط مربوط به عمق­های 40 و 60 سانتی­متری به دلیل تراکم زیاد خاک، برآورد مناسبی از رطوبت خاک نداشته است. با توجه به نتایج می­توان نتیجه گرفت که با استفاده از مدل­ها و اندازه گیری­های دقیق می­توان برنامه­ریزی دقیق­تری در رابطه با مدیریت آب آبیاری انجام داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Measurement and Dynamic Simulation of Soil Water Flow with Emphasis on Root Water Uptake

نویسندگان [English]

  • Habib Zare 1
  • Sina Besharat 2
1 MS.c Student, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University., Urmia., Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Mechanisms of crop root water uptake play an important role in agricultural water management. The aim of this study was to investigate soil water dynamics and root water uptake for an apple tree. Surface irrigation was performed around of tree. Tube-time domain reflectometry (TDR) –Profile Probe type- was used to measure soil volumetric water content. Therefore Specific tubes of 1 meter length and distance of 30 cm from each other were installed in both side of tree trunk. Moisture simulations were carried out with HYDRUS-2D model. Results showed that most changes in soil water occurred until the depth of 40 cm. These changes in surface layers are greater than above layers. Also root water uptake mostly is limited in the depth of 0-40 cm and radial distance of 0-60 cm from tree trunk. Root water uptake rate was reduced with increasing distance from the tree. HYDRUS-2D model successfully simulated the variability of soil water dynamics in until depth of 40 cm, but predict of soil water dynamics from depth of 60 to 100 cm is not good. This Difference is due to soil of this layer is very compact. So with attention to these results, a more detailed schedule will be designed in relation to irrigation water management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil water
  • Root water uptake
  • Simulation
  • HYDRUS-2D software
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