کاربرد شاخص تنش آبی گیاه برای زمان‌بندی تک آبیاری گندم دیم (مطالعه موردی در بالادست حوضه کرخه)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهش موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

3 استاد گروه مهندسی آب دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

 این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی امکان کاربرد شاخص تنش آبی گیاه برای زمان­بندی تک آبیاری بهاره گندم دیم در بالادست حوضه آبریز کرخه (به‌طور خاص منطقه هنام در استان لرستان) طی سال زراعی 94-1393 انجام گردید. بدین منظور در منطقه هنام سه مزرعه گندم دیم در عرصه کشاورزان به‌عنوان مزارع پژوهش انتخاب گردید. هر مزرعه به دو بخش تقسیم گردید. بخش اول در شرایط مدیریت دیم و بخش دوم تحت مدیریت تک آبیاری بهاره با عمق ثابت 60 میلی­متر بود. زمان اعمال تک آبیاری بهاره در مزارع شماره 1 تا 3 متفاوت و به ترتیب در سه مرحله آغاز سنبله­دهی، میانه گل­دهی (گرده افشانی) و اوایل دانه­بندی گندم بود. میزان رطوبت خاک تا عمق توسعه ریشه (60 سانتی­متر از سطح خاک) و دمای پوشش سبز گیاه طی روزهای مختلف در مراحل گل­دهی و دانه­بندی اندازه­گیری گردید. پس از تعیین مقادیر حدود مبنای پایین و بالا، مقادیر شاخص تنش آبی (CWSI) در مدیریت­های مختلف تعیین گردید. حد پایینی (خط مبنای پایین CWSI) برای گندم دیم در منطقه هنام به­صورت رابطه Tc – Ta = -2.089 VPD + 2.28 و حد مبنای بالا شاخص مذکور برابر 2/6 درجه سانتی‌گراد به دست آمد. آستانه تنش آبی برای گندم دیم به میزان 36/0 تعیین گردید. دمای پوشش سبز گیاه معادل آستانه مذکور برابر 4/26 درجه سانتی‌گراد حاصل گردید. تغییرات شاخص CWSI در مدیریت­های مختلف اعمال‌شده در مزارع پژوهشی با تغییرات عملکرد دانه همبستگی 83 درصد را نشان داد. همچنین ﺑﯿﻦ دﻣﺎی ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺳﺒﺰ گیاه و ﻣﯿﺰان آب ﻣﻮﺟﻮد در ﭘﺮوﻓﯿﻞ ﺧﺎک (در عمق توسعه ریشه گندم دیم) ﻫﻤﺒﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﺑﺎﻻﯾﯽ مشاهده شد (R2=0.78).

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Scheduling Single Irrigation for Rainfed Wheat Using Crop Water Stress Index (Case study: the upper part of the Karkheh basin)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Dehghanisanij 1
  • Mohammad Mehdi Nakhjavanimoghaddam 2
  • Bijan Ghahraman 3
1 Associate Professor Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI)., Agricultural Research., Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)., Karaj., Iran
2 Assistant professor, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI.), Agricultural Research., Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)., Karaj., Iran
3 Professor, Water Engineering Department., Ferdowsi University of Mashhad., Mashhad., Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to study scheduling of single irrigation for rain-fed wheat using crop water stress index (CWSI) for arid and semiarid regions of Honam plain located in upstream of Karkheh River Basin of Iran during 2004-2005. Three cultivated rain-fed wheat were selected to conduct the treatments. Each farm separated to 2 part: (1) rain-fed (2) single irrigation in spring by depth of 60 cm. Application of single irrigation was different in 3 farms which were in heading, flowering, and milk stages accordingly. Soil water content in 60 cm soil depth and canopy temperature in flowering and milk development stages was measured in different times. CWSI was evaluated when upper and lower base line for non-transpiring were determined. Lower and upper baseline for non-transpiring was Tc –Ta = -2.089 VPD + 2.28 and 6.2oC accordingly and CWSI and canopy temperature was 0.36 and 26.4. CWSI and yield variation were in 83% agreement.  Moreover, wheat canopy temperature and soil water content showed a high agreement (R2) of 0.78. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canopy temperature
  • Honam
  • Irrigation management
  • Water stress threshold
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