بررسی رابطه آب و هوا با عملکرد و کارایی مصرف نور در کدو پوست‎کاغذی (Cucurbita pepo L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دکتری اکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

تغییرات اقلیمی از عوامل مهم نوسانات رشد و عملکرد اقتصادی گیاهان در مقیاس­های زمانی و مکانی می­باشد. ارزیابی تاثیرات اقلیمی بر رشد و عملکرد محصول به منظور دست­یابی به الگوی رشد مطلوب و بالاترین عملکرد حایز اهمیت است. کدو پوست کاغذی (.Cucurbita pepo L)، گیاه مهمی به لحاظ اقتصادی است که در سرتاسر جهان برای مصارف دارویی کشت می­شود. به‎منظور بررسی اثر تغییرات سالیانه آب و هوا بر تجمع ماده خشک، عملکرد و کارایی مصرف نور (RUE) کدو پوست کاغذی از داده­های سه سال آزمایش­ زراعی (92، 91 و 1389) در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد استفاده شد. آنالیز آماری عملکرد و کارایی مصرف نور در کدو پوست کاغذی با متغیرهای اقلیمی شامل درجه روز رشد (GDD)، بارندگی، تابش خورشیدی، پتانسیل تبخیر و تعرق و تعداد روز با دمای حداکثر بالاتر از 32 درجه سانتی­گراد انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که تاثیر کل بارندگی بر وزن خشک کدوی پوست کاغذی در سطح احتمال پنج درصد و تاثیر سایر متغیرها در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار بود. همچنین، تمامی متغیرهای اقلیمی نیز تاثیر معنی­دار در سطح احتمال یک درصد بر کارایی مصرف نور کدو پوست کاغذی نشان دادند. همچنین، وزن خشک کدو پوست کاغذی و کارایی مصرف نور به­ترتیب با پتانسیل تبخیر و تعرق کل و بارندگی در طول فصل رشد همبستگی قوی داشت. از این­رو، در تاریخ کشت مناسب و منطبق بر رشد کدو پوست کاغذی و در شرایط آب و هوایی مطلوب می­توان بالاترین عملکرد ممکن را فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Weather association with yield production and radiation use efficiency of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Bannayan 1
  • Morteza Goldani 2
  • Mohammad Reza Goldani 3
  • Sara Asadi
1 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 PhD of Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 PhD Student of Agroecoloy, Department of Agronomy, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Climate variation is one of the major factors causing fluctuation of growth and economic yield of plants at both temporal and spatial scales. Evaluation of climate impacts on growth and yield of plants is important to achieve desirable growth pattern and highest possible yield. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) is an economically important plant and is cultivated throughout the world for oil and medicinal purposes. The current study was conducted to investigate the impacts of annual climate variations on dry matter accumulation, yield production and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of pumpkin. The required data of pumpkin growth were collected from three years experiment (2010, 2012 and 2013) at research farm of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad. A thorough analysis was carried out between yield production and radiation use efficiency of pumpkin with climate variables (including growing degree day (GDD), precipitation, solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration and number of days with maximum temperature higher than 32 oC). This study showed that the impact of total precipitation on pumpkin dry weight was significant (P<0.05) and the effects of other variables were highly significant (P<0.01). All climate variables also showed significant (P<0.01) effect on pumpkin radiation use efficiency. The strongest correlation of pumpkin dry weight and radiation use efficiency was with total potential evapotranspiration and total precipitation during the growth season, respectively. The results proper sowing date of pumpkin which coincided the crop growth with the optimum climate conditions can enable it to achieve the highest possible yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crops and environment
  • Cucurbita pepo L
  • production
  • Pumpkin production
  • Weather and crop

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