مقایسه توزیع رطوبتی خاک در آبیاری کوزه‌ای تحت فشارهای منفی و آبیاری قطره‌ای

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی آبیاری زهکشی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه ارومیه، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، پژوهشکده مطالعات دریاچه ارومیه، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

توزیع رطوبتی خاک حاصل از آبیاری کوزه­های رسی با فشار­های منفی مختلف و آبیاری قطره­ای در اراضی کشاورزی دشت ارومیه بررسی گردید. این تحقیق بر روی 4 خط آبیاری (4 تیمار)، 3 خط آبیاری کوزه­ای با فشارهای 0، 5- و 15- سانتی­متر و 1 خط آبیاری قطره­ای انجام شد. رطوبت خاک در هر خط آبیاری کوزه­ای برای 3 کوزه (3 تکرار) در موقعیت­های 15 ، 30 و 45 سانتی­متری از مرکز کوزه­ها و 6 عمق 10 ، 20 ، 30 ، 40 ، 60 و 100 سانتی­متری، با TDR-PR2 در یک دوره 4 روزه اندازه­گیری گردید. در خط آبیاری قطره­ای، برای 3 قطره­چکان در شرایط مشابه اندازه­گیری­ها انجام شد. بافت خاک براساس سیستم USDA، Clay Silt Loam طبقه­بندی گردید. همچنین، الگوی رطوبتی خاک حاصل از کوزه­ها و قطره­چکان­ها توسط مدل دوبعدی HYDRUS شبیه­سازی شد. تحلیل آماری اختلاف معنی­داری بین مقادیر رطوبت خاک در خطوط آبیاری نشان داد. نتایج مدل شبیه­سازی نشان داد الگوی رطوبتی شبیه­سازی و اندازه­گیری شده در تطابق خوبی با یکدیگر بودند. نتایج مدل­سازی ثابت کرد که با کاهش فشار منفی در کوزه­ها، مدل شبیه­سازی مقادیر کم­تری برآورد می­کند. مقادیر رطوبت خاک در خط فشار 15- سانتی­متر و آبیاری قطره­ای به ترتیب کم­ترین و بیش­ترین مقادیر بودند. این تحقیق می­تواند در طراحی بهینه یک روش آبیاری کوزه­ای با فشارهای منفی در مناطق خشک و نیمه­خشک که با بحران آب مواجه­اند موثر واقع گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison soil moisture distribution in pot irrigation with negative pressures and drip irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • behnam Habibzadeh 1
  • Kamran Zeinalzadeh 2
  • sina Besharat 3
1 Department of Water Engineering, Urmia Lake Research Institute, University of Urmia, Iran.
2 Assistant professor., Department of Water Engineering, Urmia Lake Research Institute, University of Urmia., Urmia., Iran.
3 Department of Water Engineering, Urmia Lake Research Institute, University of Urmia, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Soil water distribution due to clay pots irrigation with various negative pressures and drip irrigation investigated in the agricultural lands of the Urmia plain. This research was performed on 4 irrigation lines (4 treatments), 3 pot irrigation lines with pressures of 0,-5 and -15 cm and one drip irrigation line. The soil moisture were measured for 3 pots (3 replications) per irrigation line at locations 15, 30 and 45 (cm) away from the pot center and the six depths of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 100 (cm) with TDR-PR2 in a period of 4-day. In the drip irrigation line, the measurements were performed in the same conditions for three emitters. The soil texture was classified as Clay Silt Loam according to USDA system. Also, the soil wetting pattern of the pots and the emitters were simulated using a two-dimensional HYDRUS model. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference among the soil moisture values in the irrigation lines. The results of the simulation model showed the measured and the simulated moisture pattern were in good agreement with each other. The results of modeling demonstrated that by reducing the negative pressure in the pots, the model simulation gets underestimate. The soil water values in line -15 (cm) and drip irrigation were the lowest and the highest values, respectively. This research can be effective in the design of an optimized clay pot irrigation method with negative pressures in arid and semi-arid areas which are facing a water crisis.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drip Irrigation
  • HYDRUS
  • Negative pressure
  • Pot irrigation Simulation
  • Wetting pattern

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