تأثیر تغییر در ابعاد نوارهای آبیاری، رژیم کودی و استفاده از بذور بوجاری شده بر کارایی مصرف آب در مزارع جو منطقه‌ی میاندوآب

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

3 دانشیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات فنی مهندسی کشاورزی سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج

چکیده

در این تحقیق مطالعه‌ی میدانی به منظور بررسی تأثیر فعالیت­های به­زراعی شامل اصلاح ابعاد نوارهای آبیاری، تغییر رژیم کودی خاک و استفاده از بذور بوجاری شده بر مصرف آب و تولید گیاه در چهار مزرعه جو در شهرستان میاندوآب انجام شد. در مزارع تیمار، فناوری‌هایی به منظور مقایسه با مزرعه‌ی شاهد اعمال گردید. شاخص­های رشد مانند شاخص سطح برگ،‌ طول خوشه و طول گیاه در طول فصل رشد، وزن محصول برداشت شده و وزن هزار دانه در انتهای فصل اندازه­گیری گردید. رطوبت خاک در عمق توسعه‌ ریشه در طی فصل رشد و هم­چنین عمق آب ورودی و خروجی به هر یک از مزارع در هر نوبت آبیاری اندازه­گیری شد. پارامترهای ارزیابی شامل: عملکرد (Yc)، بهره­وری آب (WP)، کارایی مصرف آب (WUE) و راندمان کاربرد آب (Ea) در هر یک از مزارع با برداشت داده­های مزرعه­ای محاسبه گردید. نتایج دلالت بر آن داشت که فناوری­های مذکور سبب افزایش WP مزارع تیمار در مقایسه با مزرعه شاهد در حدود ۲۵ درصد و WUE حدود ۲۴ درصد گردید. هم­چنین اصلاح ابعاد نوارهای آبیاری منجر به کاهش زمان آبیاری و نفوذ عمقی گردید و راندمان کاربرد آب آبیاری در مزارع تیمار ۲۰ درصد نسبت به مزارع شاهد افزایش یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Changing Border Dimensions, Fertilizer Application Program and Using the Winnowed Seeds on Water Use Efficiency in Barley Fields in Miandoab Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hasan Tabatabaii 1
  • Seyed Majid Mirlatifi 2
  • Hosein Dehghanisanij 3
1 Former Graduate student, Dept. of Irrigation and Drainage, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Dept. of Irrigation and Drainage, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Scientific Broad Member, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Alborz, Iran
چکیده [English]

A field research was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the application of Improved Farm Practices including adjusting border size, improving soil fertility by changing the fertilizer application program, and using cleaned and disinfected seeds on water consumption and crop yield in four barley farms located in the Miandoab region. The new farm technological practices were applied in treatment farms in order to compare the results with the corresponding values obtained from the control farm, where agricultural practices were performed by the local farmer according to his own knowledge. Crop growth indices such as leaf area index, cluster and plant height during the growing season and thousand seed weight and grain yield at the harvesting time were measured. Soil water moisture content of the root zone layer during the growing season and the depths of the irrigation water and the surface runoff of each irrigation event were measured. In order to qualify the effectiveness of the new technological practices applied, the performance indices such as Water Productivity (WP), Water Use Efficiency (WUE), and Water Application Efficiency (Ea) were calculated by collecting the required field data from each one of the farms. The results indicates that the application of new farm technologies increased WP of the treatment farms as compared to the control farms about 20% and improved WUE about 24%. Adjusting the border size decreased the irrigation time and the depth of deep percolation. It furthermore, increased the Ea of treatment farms about 20%.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Application efficiency
  • Consumptive Water
  • Improved Farm Practices
  • Water productivity
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