مقایسه عملکرد و شبیه‌سازی حرکت و جذب آب و الگوی پخش ریشه ذرت دانه‌ای در سامانه‌های آبیاری قطره‌ای سطحی و زیرسطحی و مالچ پلاستیکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

3 استاد گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

اهمیت ریشه و الگوی جذب آب از خاک توسط آن یکی از عوامل مؤثر در رشد و نمو گیاهان زراعی است. نحوه توزیع ریشه در خاک تحت شرایط مختلف زراعی متفاوت بوده و اعمال مدیریت‌های مناسب منجر به افزایش جذب آب توسط ریشه و افزایش کارایی مصرف آب و در نهایت عملکرد محصول خواهد شد. بدین منظور مطالعه‌ای با هدف بررسی تأثیر روش‌های آبیاری قطره‌ای زیر سطحی (Sb)، آبیاری قطره‌ای سطحی (S) و آبیاری قطره‌ای سطحی همراه با مالچ پلاستیکی (Sm)، که در مطالعات محدودی مورد توجه قرار گرفته است، بر روی عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب و شبیه‌سازی حرکت آب و جذب ریشه با مدل HYDRUS-2D و خصوصیات آن در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال 98-1397 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه ارومیه انجام شد. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده مشخص شد که تیمار (Sm) و (S) به ترتیب دارای بیشترین میزان عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب به ترتیب به میزان 6/36 تن بر هکتار و 1/2 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب بودند. همچنین بیشترین میزان حجم و وزن ریشه مربوط به تیمار (S) به ترتیب به میزان 6/325 گرم و 8/251 میلی‌لیتر بود. بر اساس شبیه‌سازی‌های صورت گرفته مشخص شد که تغییرات رطوبت در تیمار (S) بیشتر در سطح خاک اتفاق افتاده است ولی در تیمار (Sb) این تغییرات در عمق خاک و در تیمار (Sm) در یک عمق مشخص که فاصله کمی از سطح خاک دارد، دیده می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of yield and water flow simulation, maize root uptake and pattern of maize root distribution in surface and subsurface drip irrigation systems and plastic mulch

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fateme Zeynali 1
  • Sina Besharat 2
  • Javad Behmanesh 3
1 Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia 57153, IRAN
2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University
3 Professor of Water Engineering, Department of Water Engineering, Urmia University. Urmia. Iran
چکیده [English]

The importance of roots and the pattern of water uptake from soil is one of the effective factors in the growth and development of crops. The distribution of roots in the soil is different under various agronomic conditions and the application of appropriate management will lead to increased water uptake by the roots and increase water use efficiency and ultimately crop yield. For this purpose, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of subsurface drip irrigation (Sb), surface drip irrigation (S) and surface drip irrigation with plastic mulch (Sm) which has been considered in limited studies, on water use efficiency, yield and simulation of water movement and root water uptake by HYDRUS-2D model and its characteristics was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replicated at Research Field of Agriculture Faculty of Urmia University in 2018-2019 growing season. Results showed that the treatment (Sm) and (S) had 36.6 tons per hectare and 2.1 kg per cubic meter, respectively. Also, the highest volume and weight of roots was obtained from treatment (S), respectively, 325.6 gr and 251.8 ml. Based on the simulations, it was found that changes in soil moisture in treatment (S) occurred more at the soil surface, but in treatment (Sb) these changes in soil depth and in treatment (Sm) at a certain depth that a small distance It can be seen from the surface of the soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • HYDRUS-2D model
  • Maxima cultivar
  • Root radius
  • Water balance
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دوره 15، شماره 4 - شماره پیاپی 88
مهر و آبان 1400
صفحه 955-966
  • تاریخ دریافت: 09 اردیبهشت 1400
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 15 اردیبهشت 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 18 مرداد 1400
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 18 مرداد 1400