ارزیابی تغییرات عملکرد محصولات کشاورزی و ورودی به دریاچه ارومیه در حوضه زرینه‌رود تحت تاثیر تغییر سیستم‌های آبیاری از سطحی به تحت فشار با استفاده از مدل SWAT

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فارغ التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد گروه مهندسی منابع آب دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه مهندسی منابع آب دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی منابع آب دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

دریاچه ارومیه بزرگترین دریاچه آب شور کشور است. سطح آب این دریاچه بدلیل گسترش سطح زیرکشت آبی اراضی کشاورزی و همچنین خشکسالی­های اخیر با افت شدید روبرو شده است. نتیجه این وضعیت، مشکلات جدی زیست محیطی برای دریاچه و منطقه اطراف آن بوده است. در این راستا افزایش راندمان آبیاری به عنوان یکی از راهکارهای اساسی در کاهش مصرف آب  و افزایش ورودی به دریاچه مطرح می­باشد. در این مقاله قابلیت این راهکار مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و در آن حوضه زرینه­رود که بزرگترین زیرحوضه دریاچه می­باشد، به عنوان منطقه مطالعاتی انتخاب گردیده است. در ادامه، برای شبیه­سازی­های مورد نیاز از مدل SWAT  استفاده گردید. بدین منظور ابتدا این مدل با استفاده از 6 ایستگاه آبسنجی در سطح حوضه واسنجی و اعتبارسنجی شد. سپس، میزان تبخیر و تعرق واقعی و عملکرد محصولات کشاورزی عمده حوضه در سال­های پرباران بر اساس اطلاعات سند ملی آب واسنجی شد، که نتایج  R2 بیش از 80/0 را نشان داد. مدل واسنجی شده همراه با تمهیداتی که برای تغییر روش آبیاری سطحی (راندمان 38 درصد)  به بارانی (راندمان 60 درصد) و قطره­ای (راندمان 80 درصد) انجام شد نشان داد که مقدار محصول تولیدی بطور متوسط 20 درصد نسبت به شرایط پایه افزایش یافته، سطح آب زیرزمینی با افت شدیدتر روبرو شده و مقدار حجم آب ورودی به دریاچه تغییر معنی­داری نخواهد داشت. لذا، این روش نمی­تواند راه حل اساسی در جهت تامین نیاز آبی دریاچه ارومیه تلقی گردد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of changes in agricultural crop yields and inflows to Lake Urmia in Zarrinehrud River basin due to changing irrigation systems from surface to pressurized using the SWAT model

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hojat Ahmadzadeh 1
  • Saeid Morid 2
  • Majid Delavar 3
1 MS of Water Resources Engineering Dept., Tarbiat Modares University.,Tehran.,Iran
2 Assoc. Prof. of Water Resources Engineering Dept., Tarbiat Modares University .,Tehran.,Iran
3 Ph.D of hydraulic structures Dept., Tarbiat Modares University.,Tehran.,Iran
چکیده [English]

Lake Urmia (LU) is the largest salt lake in the country. The lake’s level has extremely declined due to the increase in irrigated agricultural lands and the recent droughts. This condition has caused many environmental problems for the lake and the surrounding area. To resolve this problem, increasing irrigation efficiency is expressed as one the fundamental solutions to reduce water consumption and improve the rate of river inflows to LU. To assess this strategy, Zarrinerud River basin as the largest catchment of the LU basin was chosen as the study area to investigate effectiveness of this strategy. Furthermore, the Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) model was chosen and applied for the required simulations. For this, in the first step, the model was calibrated and validated using 6 gauging stations. Then, the basin’s actual evapotranspiration and crop production were calibrated, which resulted R2 more than 80%. The calibrated model along with the applied arrangements in the model were used to simulate changes in irrigation methods from surface (efficiency of 38%) to sprinkler (efficiency of 60%) and drip irrigation (efficiency of 80%). The results showed up to 20% increase in crop yields comparing with the current condition. But, the annual volume of water entering the lake didn’t significantly change and the decrease of water table was more severe. Therefore, it concluded that the pressurized irrigation cannot be considered as a fundamental measure to save Lake Urmia. 

 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urmia Lake
  • Zarrinehrud River basin
  • Irrigation efficiency
  • Actual Evapotranspiration
  • SWAT
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