عنوان مقاله [English]
Ghanats are water structures of Iranian invention. Groundwater extraction is transferred by Ghanat, with the force of gravity and from underground and away from the evaporation. Structure of Ghanats created in Iran was changed from the used state to unused state, and the resistant structures or Kaval were used in order to prevent the destruction of structure of Kariz. The aim of this study is the optimal shape design of Ghanat Kaval using finite element method and particle swarm optimization. For this purpose, first, 3D modelling of Kaval and it’s around element was implemented in ANSYS software. Then, optimal shape design of Kaval was achieved using particle swarm optimization and linking it to ANSYS software. Weight of Kaval was considered as the objective of optimization problem, and the geometry parameters of Kaval were design variables. Also, stress of the body Kaval (compressive and tension stresses) was considered as constraint. The optimum results were shown that particle swarm optimization had high performance in the optimal shape design of Kaval so that the weight of Kaval in comparison with the existent Kaval was considerably decreased.