مدل کردن نیمرخ رطوبتی در آبیاری قطره‌ای زیرسطحی با استفاده از HYDRUS-2D

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشی موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی کرج، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

4 - استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

5 دانشیار موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی کرج، کرج، ایران

6 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

چکیده

کاهش کمی منابع­آب، بشر را بر آن وا می­دارد که مصرف صحیحی از این منابع داشته باشد. طراحی و مدیریت صحیح آبیاری قطره­ای زیر­سطحی، مستلزم آگاهی از نحوه­ای توزیع رطوبت در خاک است. در این تحقیق برای تخمین الگوی توزیع رطوبت خاک توسط مدل HYDRUS-2D در یک سیستم آبیاری قطره­ای از یک جعبه با دیواره‌های شفاف پر شده از خاک لومی استفاده شد، سپس قطره چکان­ها در دو عمق 40 و 50 سانتی­متر و با دبی مورد استفاده 5/3 لیتر در ساعت و با فاصله­ای 75 سانتی­متر نصب شدند. نتایج نشان داد که این مدل تغییرات رطوبت خاک در اطراف قطره چکان را به خوبی و با خطای میانگین ریشه مربعات بین 014/0 و 033/0 برای عمق نصب 40 سانتی­متر و 009/0 تا 025/0 برای عمق نصب 50 سانتی­متر برآورد کرد. به علاوه به دلیل تشکیل پروفیل رطوبتی پیوسته که نشان دهنده مناسب بودن فاصله­ی قطره­چکان­ها از یکدیگر است، رطوبت کم­تر در نزدیکی سطح خاک با عمق 50 سانتی­متر و فاصله­ای 75 سانتی­متری قطره­چکان­ها از یکدیگر اتفاق افتاد که به عنوان عمق و فاصله بهینه 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Soil Moisture Profile in Subsurface Drip Irrigation Using HYDRUS-2D model

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mozdeh Khalili 1
  • Mehdi Akbari 2
  • Abotaleb Hezarjaribi 3
  • Mehdi Zakerinia 4
  • Fariborz Abbasi 5
  • Ali Koulaian 6
1 Graduated MS of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Gorgan., Gorgan., Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Agriculture Engineering Research Institute., Karaj., Iran
3 Associate of Department of Water Engineering, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Gorgan., Gorgan., Iran
4 Assistant Professor of Department of Water Engineering, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Gorgan., Gorgan., Iran
5 Associate, Agriculture Engineering Research Institute., Karaj., Iran
6 Graduated MS of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Sari., Sari., Iran
چکیده [English]

Because of decreasing the value and availability of water resources, we have to use water resources in a best way. The new irrigation systems like subsurface drip irrigation can improve irrigation efficiency and water use efficiency. To properly manage SDI systems, the precise distribution of water around the emitter must be known. Several models have been developed to simulate soil moisture pattern and wetting front by using soil hydraulic parameters, the emitter’s discharge and the volume of discharged water. In this paper, HYDRUS-2D model was used so simulation results were compared with two sets of experiments involving SDI with emitters installed at two different depth (40 &50 cm) while the emitters space was 75 cm with 3.5 l/h emitter discharge. The RMSE at different locations around emitter varied between 0.014 and 0.033 for volumetric water content in 40 cm installation depth and 0.009 and 0.025 for 50 cm installation depth. The continuous horizontal wetting profile was achieved so the space of emitter was suitable. With due attention to our results, 75 cm distance between emitters and 50 cm installation depth with 3.5 l/hr emitter discharge is proposed to be applied in loamy soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • HYDRUS-2D model
  • Installation depth
  • subsurface drip irrigation
  • Wetting pattern
-کریمی گوغری.ش، ایراندوست.م، حسینی­نیا،م. 1390 شبیه­سازی الگوی توزیع رطوبت و تبخیر در آبیاری قطره­ای زیرسطحی در یک خاک شنی.مجله مهندسی منابع آب49:4-60

-عباسی،ف. 1386. فیزیک خاک پیشرفته. انتشارات دانشگاه تهران. صفحه 22

-Acar,b. Topak,R and Mikailsoy,F. 2009. Effect of applied water and discharge rate on wetted soil volume in loam or clay-loam soil from an irrigated trickle source. African Journal of Agriculture Research. 1:049-054.

-Ben-Asher,J and Phene,C.J. 1996. Surface and subsurface drip irrigation: An analysis by a numerical model. Rep. Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University of Negev, Sde Boker Campus, Negev, Israel.

-Chu,S.T. 1994. Green-Ampt analysis of wetting pattern for surface emitters. Journal of Irrigation Drainange. Engineering. 120:2:414-421.

Cook,F.j., Thorbun,P.J., Fitch, p and Bristow,L. 2003. Wet up: A Soft Ware tool to display approximate wetting pattern from dripper. Irrigation. Science. 22: 129-134

-Cook,F.j., Fitch,p., Thorbun,P.J., Charlesworth,P.B and Bristow,K.L. 2006. Modeling trickle irrigation: Comparison of analytical and numberical models for estimation of wetting front position with time. Environ mental modeling and soft ware. 21:1353-1359.

-Elmaloglous,s and Diamantopoulos,E. 2009 Simulation of water dynamics under subsurface drip irrigation from line sources. Agriculture. Water Management. 96:1587-1595

Essig,E.T., Corradini.C., Morbidelli,R., Govindaraju,R.S. 2009. Infiltration and deep flow over sloping surface: Comparison of numberical and experimental result. Journal of hydrology. 374:30-42

-Lamm,F.R and Camp,C.R. 2007. Chapt. 13: Subsurface drip irrigation. In.Microirrigation for Crop Production: Design,Operation and Management. 473‐551.

-Mailhol,J.C., Ruellea,P., Walserb,S., Schutzeb,N., Dejeana,D. 2011. Analysis of aet and yield predictions under surface and buried drip irrigation systems using the Crop model pilote and Hydrus-2D. Agriculture Water Management. 98:1033-1044.

-M. Kandelous,M., Simunek,J. 2010. Numerical simulations of water movement in a subsurface drip irrigation system under field and laboratory conditions using HYDRUS-2D. Agriculture Water Management. 97:1070–1076

-M. Kandelous,M., Simunek,J. 2010b. Comparison of numerical, analytical, and empirical models to estimate wetting patterns for surface and subsurface drip irrigation. Irrigation  Science. 28:435–444

-M. Kandelous,M., Simunek,J., van Genuchten. Malek, K. 2011. Soil Water Content Distributions between Two Emitters of a Subsurface Drip Irrigation System. Soil physics. Journal. 75.2:488-497.

-Moncef,H., Hedi,D., Jelloul,B and Mohamed,M. 2002. Approch for predicting the wetting front depth beneath a surface point source: theory and numerical aspect. J. Irrigation. Drainange. 51: 347-360.

-Patel Neelam, Rajput,T.B.S. 2008. Dynamics and modeling of soil water under subsurface drip irrigated onion agricultural water management. 95:1335–1349.

-Philip,J.R. 1968. Steady in.ltration from buried point sources and spherical cavities.Journal of Water Resource 4:1039–1047.

Provenzano,G. 2007. Using HYDRUS-2D Simulation model to evaluate Wetted Soil Volume in subsurface drip irrigation system. Journal of Irrigation Drainange. Engineering. 133:342-349

-Provenzano,G. 2008. Discusion of using HYDRUS-2D Simulation Model to Evaluate wetted Soil Volume in SDI System. Journal of Irrigation Drainange. Engineering. 10:1061-1072

Schwartzman,M and zur,b. 1986. Emitter spacing and geometry of wetted soil volume. Journal of Irrigation Drainange. Engineering. 112:242-253

-Shan,Y., Wang,Q and Wang,Ch. 2011. Simulated soil wetting patterns for overlap zone under double points sources of drip irrigation. African Journal of Biotechnology. 63:13744-13755

-Simunek,J., van Genuchten,M.Th and sejna,M. 2006. The HYDRUS Software Package for Simulating Two and Three- Dimentional Movment of Water, heat, and Multiple Solutes in Variably-Saturated Media, Technical Manual, Version 1.0, Pc Progress, Prague,Czech Republic.

-Simunek,J., sejna,M., van Genuchten,M.Th. 1999. The HYDRUS-2D Software Package for Simulating the Two- Dimentional Movment of Water, heat, and Multiple Solutes in Variably-Saturated Media. Release 2.0 IGWMCTPS 53-251.International Ground Wwater Modeling Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO.

-Simunek,J. Jarvis,N.J., van Genuchten,M.Th and Gardenas,A. 1998. The HYDRUS-1D Software Package for Simulating the one- Dimentional Movment of Water, heat, and Multiple Solutes in Variably-Saturated Media. Release 2.0 IGWMCTPS 70.International Ground water Modeling Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO.

-Simunek,J. van Genuchten,M.Th and sejna,M. 2008. Development and applications of the hydrus and stanmod software packages and related code. J. Vadose zone. 7:587-600.

Siyal,a.a and Skaggs,T.H. 2009. Measured and simulated soil wetting patterns under porous clay management. J. Agriculture water management. 96:6:893-904.

-User manual for the Profile Probe,type PR2. 2004. Delta- T Devices Ltd.

-Warrick,A.W. 1974. Time-dependent linearized in.ltration. I. Point sources. Journal of Soil Science Society American. 38:383–386.