اثر مدیریت‌های مختلف پوشش بقایای گیاهی در برآورد تبخیر-تعرق واقعی با استفاده از مدل گیاهی SIMDualKc

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته آبیاری و زهکشی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 پژوهشگر گروه منابع آب، زمین و هوا، دانشگاه کالیفرنیا، دیویس، ایالات متحده آمریکا

چکیده

این تحقیق با هدف ارزیابی مدل آبیاری SIMDualKc و شبیه­سازی سناریوهای مختلف مدیریت بقایای گیاهی انجام شد. مدل مذکور تبخیر-تعرق را با روش ضریب گیاهی دو جزیی برآورد می­نماید، بنابراین امکان بررسی اثر انواع مالچ­ها (خاک پوش­ها) بر میزان تبخیر­-­تعرق را فراهم می­آورد. شبیه­سازی پنج سناریوی مدیریت پوشش بقایای گیاهی (مالچ آلی با چگالی­های به ترتیب 6/0، 5/0، 4/0، 3/0 و 2/0 کیلوگرم بر مترمربع) طی فصل رشد 81-1380 با استفاده از مدل گیاهی SIMDualKc صورت پذیرفت. واسنجی و صحت­سنجی مدل با استفاده از نتایج آزمایش مزرعه­ای تحت کشت گندم طی دو فصل زراعی متوالی 82-1380 انجام شد. اطلاعات اقلیم، خاک و گیاه و مدیریت آبیاری به مدل وارد گردید. مدل، آب قابل دسترس خاک را با مقدار راندمان مدل­سازی (EF) برابر 902/0، RMSE محاسبه شده 34/1 میلی­متر، میانگین خطای مطلق 995/0 میلی­متر و میانگین خطای نسبی برابر 67/4 درصد برآورد نمود. در مواردی که اطلاعات لازم برای واسنجی در دسترس نباشد استفاده از نتایج شبیه­سازی مدل با پارامتر­های گیاهی و نیز پارامترهای لایه تبخیری خاک استاندارد FAO-56، با دقت مناسبی قابل قبول است. نتایج شبیه­سازی در سناریوهای مختلف پوشش بقایای گیاهی نشان داد با افزایش چگالی مواد آلی پوششی، نسبت تبخیر به تبخیر-تعرق کم­تر می­شود و میزان تعرق گیاه افزایش می­یابد. بدون پوشش بقایای گیاهی مناسب نسبت تبخیر به تبخیر-تعرق 18 درصد بود که با کاربرد پوشش بقایای گیاهی (مالچ­های آلی) با چگالی 6/0 گیلوگرم بر مترمربع این نسبت به 8 درصد کاهش می­یابد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Various Surface Residue Cover Managements Effect on Actual ET Estimation Using SIMDualKc Crop Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samira Ashaeri 1
  • Teymour Sohrabi 2
  • Ali Asghar Montazar 3
1 ph.D Student, Department of Irrigation and Remediation Engineering College of Agriculture & Natural Resource, University of Tehran., Tehran., Iran
2 Professor, Department of Irrigation and Remediation Engineering College of Agriculture & Natural Resource, University of Tehran., Tehran., Iran
3 Researcher, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8627, USA
چکیده [English]

The objective of this study was to evaluate SIMDualKc crop model and then simulating different scenarios of surface residue cover. This model estimates evapotranspiration with dual crop coefficient approach. Therefore, that enables investigation of various mulch effects on evapotranspiration amount. Five management scenarios (organic mulch with densities of 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) were simulated with SIMDualKc crop model during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons.  SIMDualKc model calibration and validation was performed with the results of 2 years data obtained from wheat field experiments located in Aboreihan University College of Tehran University. Then, climate, soil, crop and irrigation management data were inserted into model. The model estimated soil available water with model efficiency (EF) of 0.902 and calculating the following evaluation criteria: RMSE=1.34 mm, absolute error = 0.955 mm and mean relative error = 4.67 %.with lack of required data for calibration, using FAO-56 standard crop and soil evaporative parameters resulted in reasonable accuracy. Various scenarios of crop residue mulch simulation results showed that with increase of organic mulch density, the ratio of evaporation to evapotranspiration (E/ET) decreased and transpiration rate increased. While ratio of E/ET was 18% w/o crop residue mulch, by applying organic mulch with density of 0.6 Kg/m2 decreased to 8%.    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crop model
  • Evapotransipiration
  • Mulch
  • SIMDualKc
  • Surface reidue
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