تحلیل کارآیی روش آب‌شویی موضعی در خروج املاح از خاک مطالعه موردی: باغ پسته در منطقه فتح‌آباد کرمان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری آبیاری، موسسه پژوهشی آب و توسعه پایدار فلات- کرمان

2 محقق موسسه آب و توسعه پایدار فلات، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

هدف آب­شویی به شیوه موضعی، خارج کردن املاح تجمع یافته از محدوده اصلی فعالیت ریشه در باغات و مزارع مجهز به سامانه­های آبیاری موضعی و در شرایط عدم دسترسی به آب کافی برای آب­شویی است. راندمان این روش در باغات مجهز به­ سامانه آبیاری زیرسطحی و یا در شرایط کاربرد موضعی مواد اصلاح کننده، آزمون نشده است. بنابراین در زمستان 1394 در باغ پسته در منطقه فتح­آباد کرمان تحقیق فوق انجام شد و به ارزیابی روش آب­شویی موضعی به همراه سه تیمار آب آبیاری، گچ و اسیدسولفوریک در چهار تکرار در خروج املاح از محدوده اصلی فعالیت ریشه درخت پسته (منطقه مرطوب اطراف لوله زیرسطحی) پرداخت. در این روش آب­شویی که به­مدت 5 روز متوالی انجام گردید، از دو خط لوله تیپ کم فشار در فاصله 40 سانتی­متری از دو سمت ردیف درختان برای آب­شویی املاح از محدوده مرطوب اطراف لوله زیرسطحی استفاده شد. برای مقایسه راندمان آب­شویی و میزان تغییرات در مقادیر سدیم و هدایت الکتریکی (EC)، نمونه­برداری خاک قبل و بعد از آب­شویی از شبکه 80 ×120 سانتی­متر از لایه­های 20 سانتی‌متری انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد 1000 میلی­متر ارتفاع آب، منجر به آب­شویی موثر املاح از منطقه اصلی فعالیت ریشه درخت پسته گردید. استفاده از گچ در مقایسه با تیمارهای آب آبیاری و اسیدسولفوریک، منجر به خروج بیش­تر سدیم و املاح از خاک شد. در تیمار گچ، درصد آب‌شویی سدیم و نمک­های محلول به­ترتیب در حدود 61 و 58 درصد بدست آمد. راندمان آب­شویی املاح در تیمار آب آبیاری 56 درصد و بیش­تر از راندمان آب­شویی املاح در تیمار اسیدسولفوریک (45 درصد) بود. بنابراین، با توجه به بالا بودن راندمان آب­شویی آب آبیاری در مقایسه با تیمار اسیدسولفوریک، عدم تفاوت معنی­دار آن با تیمار گچ در خروج املاح و با لحاظ مسایل اقتصادی مرتبط با هزینه مواد اصلاح کننده، به­نظر می­رسد که در استفاده­های عملی کاربرد آب آبیاری به تنهایی می­تواند استراتژی مناسبی برای اصلاح خاک­های منطقه مورد مطالعه باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Efficiency analysis of localized leaching method to remove salts from the soil Case Study: Pistachio orchard in Fath-Abad area of Kerman

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahriyar Bastani 1
  • Mohadeseh Hosseininia 2
1 Research Institute for Water and Sustainable Development Plateau, Kerman, Iran
2 Researcher in Institute of Water and Sustainable Development of Falat, Kerman, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The aim of localized leaching is to remove accumulatedsalts from the main activeroot zone in orchards and fields under localized irrigation systems and in the absence of sufficient water for leaching.The efficiency of this method has not been examined in subsurface-irrigated orchard or in conditions of localized application of amendments. Therefore, this study was carried out in winter of 1394 in a pistachio orchard in Fath-Abad area in Kerman to evaluate the potential of localized leaching method along with three treatments of irrigation water, gypsum, sulfuric acid with four repetitions to remove soluble salt from the main active pistachio root zone (wet areas around the subsurface pipe). In this leaching technique which was carried out for 5 consecutive days,two lines of low-flow drip tape at a distance of 40 cm from two sides of the tree row were used to leach salt from wet areas around the subsurface clay pipe. To compare leaching efficiency and changes in sodium and EC levels, soil sampling was carried out before and after leaching at 80 (Length)*120 (Depth) cm profile in 20 cm intervals. The results showed that application of 1000 mm of water led to effective salt leaching from the main active pistachio root zone. The application of gypsum increased the sodium and salts removal compare to irrigation water and sulfuric acid treatments. The percentage of sodium and salts leachate in gypsum treatment was about 61 and 58 percentage, respectively.Iirrigation water treatment with 56% leaching efficiency was more than the efficiency of sulfuric acid treatment (45%). Thus, due to the high efficiency of irrigation water compared to sulfuric acid, no significant differencewith gypsum treatment in salt removal and taking into account economic issues related to the amendments,applying irrigation water alone could be recommended as the appropriate strategies for practical reclamation of the studied soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gypsum
  • Leaching effciency
  • Salinity
  • Subsurface irrgation
  • Sulfuric acid
حسینی­نیا،م.، حسن­پور،ف.، نقوی،ه.، عباسیف.، باستانی،ش. 1395. تاثیر آب­شویی با شرایط مختلف بر کیفیت زه­آب خروجی از ستون­های خاک شور و آهکی.مجله مهندسی آبیاری و آب ایران. 7. 2: 78-89.

دفتر آمار و فناوری اطلاعات، معاونت برنامه‌ریزی و اقتصادی وزارت جهاد کشاورزی. 1390. آمار سطح زیر کشت، میزان تولید و عملکرد محصولات باغی استان کرمان.

رسولی،ف و کیانی­پور،ع. 1389. مدیریت شوری در تولید گیاهان زراعی. چاپ اول. شیراز: انتشارات کوشامهر. صفحات 17 و 150.

Ahmad,S., Ghafoor,A., Akhtar,M.E., Khan,M.Z. 2013. Ionic displacement and reclamation of saline‐sodic soils using chemical amendments and crop rotation. Land Degradation and Development. 24.2:170-178.

Ahmed,K., Qadir,G., Jami,A.R., Nawaz,M.Q., Rehim,A., Jabran,K., Hussain,M. 2015. Gypsum and Farm Manure Application with Chiseling Improve Soil Properties and Performance of Fodder Beet under Saline-sodic Conditions. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology.17: 1225-1230

Amezketa,E., Aragues,R., Gazol,R. 2005. Efficiency of sulfuric acid, mined gypsum and two gypsum by products in soil crusting prevention and sodic soil reclamation. Agronomy journal. 97:983–989.

Amini,S., Ghadiri,H., Chen,C., Marschner,P. 2016. Salt-affected soils, reclamation, carbon dynamics, and biochar: a review. Journal of soils and sediments. 16.3:939-953.

Asadi Kapourchal,S., Homaee,M and Pazira,E. 2013. A parametric desalinization model for large scale saline soil reclamation. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research.3.3:774-783.

Bahceci,I. 2009. Determination of salt leaching and gypsum requirements with field tests of saline–sodic soils in central turkey. Irrigation and drainage.58:332–345.

Burt,C.M., Isbell,B. 2005. Leaching of accumulated soil salinity under drip irrigation. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 48.6:2115-2121.

Chaganti,V.N., Crohn,D.M., Šimůnek,J. 2015. Leaching and reclamation of a biochar and compost amended saline–sodic soil with moderate SAR reclaimed water. Agricultural Water Management. 158:255-265.

Cucci,G., Lacolla,G., Pagliai,M., Vignozzi,N. 2015. Effect of reclamation on the structure of silty-clay soils irrigated with saline-sodic waters. International agrophysics. 29.1:23-30.

Dahab,M.H. 1984. The effect of  irrigation quantity and frequency andsome amendments on salt leaching in a saline - sodic clay soil M.Sc. Thesis, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan.

Dahiya,I.S., Malik,R.S., Singh,M. 1981. Field studies on leaching behavior of a highly saline-sodic soil under two modes of water application in the presence of crops. Agricultural science.97:383-389.

Ferguson,L., Poss,P.A., Grattan,S.R., Grieve,C.M., Want,D., Wilson,C., Donovan,T.J and Chao,C.T. 2002. Pistachio rootstocks influence scion growth and ion relations under salinity and boron stress. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 127.2:194-199.

Ferguson,L., Sanden,B and Grattan,G. 2010. Understanding the effects of salinity on pistachios. California: Fruit and nut research and information center. [Online]<http://fruitsandnuts.Ucdavis.edu> [2 April 2013].

Gharaibeh,M.A., Eltaif,N.I and Shunnar,O.F. 2011. Leaching and reclamation of calcareous saline-sodic soil by moderately saline and moderate-SAR water using gypsum and calcium chloride. Plant Nutrition. J. Soil Sci. 172:713–719.

Gupta,S.k and Abrol,I.P. 1990. Salt-Affected Soils: their reclamation and management for crop production. Advances in soil science. 11:223-288.

Hanson,B.L., May,D. 2011. Drip irrigation salinity management for row crops. University of California Agriculture and Natural Research Publications.

Hanson,B.R., Bendixen,W.E. 1995. Drip irrigation salinity under controls soil row crops. California agriculure. 49:19-23.

Hendrikus Barnard,J., Van Rensburg,L.D and Peter Bennie,A.L. 2010. Leaching irrigated saline sandy to sandy loam apedal soils with water of a constant salinity. Irrigation science. 28:191–201.

Hoffman,G.J. 1980. Guidelines for reclamation of salt-affected soils. Proceedings of technical conference on International American salinity and water management. December 1-12, 1997, Juarez, Mexico: 49-64.

Kandelous,M.M., Šimůnek,J. 2010. Numerical simulations of water movement in a subsurface drip irrigation system under field and laboratory conditions using HYDRUS-2D. Agricultural Water Management. 97.7: 1070-1076.

Kang,Y., Chen,M., Wan,S. 2010. Effects of drip irrigation with saline water onwaxy maize (Zea mays.L,var. ceratina Kulesh) in North China Plain. Agriculture Water Management. 97:1303–1309.

Khosla,B.K., Gupta,R.K and Abrol,I.P. 1979. Salt leaching and the effect of gypsum application in a saline-sodic soil. Agricultural water management. 2.3:193-202.

Li,X.B., Kang,Y.H., Wan,S.Q., Chen,X.L., Chu,L.L., Xu,J.C. 2015. First and second-year assessments of the rapid reconstruction and re-vegetation method for reclaiming two saline–sodic, coastal soils with drip-irrigation. Ecological engineering. 84:496-505.

Liu,S., Kang,Y., Wan,S., Wang,Z., Liang,Z., Jiang,S., Wang,R. 2012. Germination and growth of Puccinellia tenuiflora in saline–sodic soil under drip irrigation. Agricultare Water Management 109:127–134.

Mahmoodabadi,M., Yazdanpanah,N., Sinobas,L. R.,Pazira., Neshat,A. 2013. Reclamation of calcareous saline sodic soil with different amendments (I): Redistribution of soluble cations within the soil profile. Agricultural water management. 120:30-38.

Miller,R.J., Nielsen,D.R and Biggar,J.W. 1965. Chloride displacement in Panoche clay loam in relation to water movement and distribution. Water Resources Research. 1:63-73.

Miyamoto,S and Enriquez,C. 1990. Comparative effects of chemical amendments on salt and NA leaching. Irrigation Science.11:83-92.

Niazi,B., Ahmed,M., Hussain,N., Salim,M. 2001. Comparison of sand,gypsum and sulphuric acid to reclaim a dense saline sodic soil. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 3:316–318.

Nielsen,D.R and Biggar,J.W. 1961. Miscible displacement in soils. Soil Science Society American. 25:1–5.

Prather,R.J., Goertzen,J.O., Rhoades,J.D and Frenkel,H. 1978. Efficient amendment use in sodic soil reclamation. Soil science society of American journal. 42:782 -786

Rahman,A., Hassan,M. 2015. Effect Of Different Levels Of Some Soil Amendments, Methods Of Application And Wet/Dry Cycles On Water Flow In Two Clay Soils Type (Doctoral dissertation, University of Khartoum), 93.

Rasouli,F., Pouya,A.K., Karimian,N. 2013. Wheat yield and physico-chemical properties of a sodic soil from semi-arid area of Iran as affected by applied gypsum. Geoderma. 193:246-255.

Reeve,R.C. 1957. The relation of salinity to irrigation and drainage requirements. Third Congress of International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, Transactions. 5.10:175-187.

Saqib,A.I., Ahmed,K., Qadir,G., Nawaz,M.Q., Rizwan,M., Zaka,M.A., Warraich,I.A. 2017. Comparison the Efficient Reclamation of Different Inorganic Materials with Organic Amendments to Rice-Wheat Crop Sustainable Production in Salt-Affected Soils. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova. 50.1:19-29.

Singh,A., Singh,J.K. 2014. Effect of Gypsum on the Reclamation and Soil Chemical Properties in Sodic Soils of Raebareli District, Uttar Pradesh. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences. 2.12:429.

Sun,J.X., Kang,Y.H., Wan,S.Q. 2013. Effects of an imbedded gravel–sand layer on reclamation of  coastal saline soils under drip irrigation and on  plant growth. Agriculute Water Management. 123:12–19.

Vance,G.F., King,L.A., Ganjegunte,G.K. 2008. Soil and plant responses from land application of saline-sodic waters: implications of management. Journal of Environmental Quality. 37:139–148.

Wan,S., Jiao,Y., Kang,Y., Hu,W., Jiang,S., Tan,J., Liu,W. 2012. Drip irrigation of waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina Kulesh) for production in highly saline conditions. Agricultural water management. 104:210-220.

Wang,L., Zhao,Z.Y., Zhang,K., Tian,C.Y. 2013. Reclamation and utilization of saline soils in Arid Northwestern China: a promising halophyte drip-irrigation system. Environmental Science Technology. 47:5518–5519.

Worku,A., Minaleshewa,M., kidan,H.G. 2016. Impact of Gypsum and Sulfuric Acid Application on Cotton Yield under Saline Sodic Soil Condition in Melka Sadi Irrigated Farm. Academia Journal of Agricultural Research 4.2:091-095

Yahia,T.A., Miyamoto,S and Stroehlein,J.L. 1975. Effect of surface applied sulfuric acid or water penetration into dry calcareous and sodic soils. Soil Science Society American Journal. 39:1201-1204.

Yazdanpanah,N., Mahmoodabadi,M. 2013. Reclamation of calcareous saline–sodic soil using different amendments: Time changes of soluble cations in leachate. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 6.7:2519-2528.