ارزیابی روش نیمه‌کمی مدل AquaCrop برای شبیه‌سازی پاسخ ذرت به کود نیتروژن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در مدل AquaCrop، پاسخ گیاه تحت تنش­های مختلف کودی توسط یک روش ساده و نیمه­کمی پیش­بینی می­شود. هدف اصلی در این مطالعه ارزیابی روش مذکور در شبیه­سازی پارامترهای رشد ذرت برای تیمارهای مختلف کود نیتروژن در مناطق گرم و خشک ایران است. بدین منظور گیاه ذرت طی سال­های زراعی 1394 و 1395 در مزرعه پردیس ابوریحان بدون تنش رطوبتی کشت شد. در این مطالعه تیمارها شامل پنج سطح کودی صفر به عنوان شاهد (N0)، 50(N1) ، 100(N2) ، 150 (N3)، 200 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار(N4)  به صورت طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی، با سه تکرار ایجاد شدند. از داده­های تیمارهای N0 و N4 در سال 1394 برای واسنجی­ و از باقیمانده داده­ها برای صحت­سنجی مدل استفاده گردید. در مرحله واسنجی مقدار پارامتر­های ریشه میانگین مربعات خطای نسبی (RRMSE)، ضریب تعیین (R2) و متوسط خطای اریب (MBE) در شبیه­سازی زیست­توده طی دوره رشد به ترتیب برابر 8/11%، 995/0 و 51/0 تن در هکتار برای N0 و 8/11%، 988/0 و 02/1-  تن در هکتار برای N4 بدست آمد. در مرحله صحت­سنجی مقدار RRMSE، R2و MBE به ترتیب برابر 06/19%، 920/0 و 92/0 تن در هکتار برای تخمین عملکرد دانه و 32/5%، 975/0 و 41/0 تن در هکتار برای تخمین زیست­توده نهایی بدست آمد. نتایج بدست آمده حاکی از دقت بالای مدل در برآورد رطوبت ناحیه ریشه و بهره­وری آب نرمال شده در تیمار­های مختلف بود. از طرف دیگر مشخص شد که مدل AquaCrop قادر نیست تغییرات زیست­توده و پوشش گیاه طی دوره کشت در تیمار­های مختلف را همانند عملکرد نهایی زیست توده و دانه، نسبتا دقیق پیش­بینی کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating Semi-Quantitative Approach of the AquaCrop Model for Simulating Maize Response to Nitrogen Fertilizer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arash Ranjbar 1
  • Ali Rahimikhoob 2
  • Hamed Ebrahimian 3
1 Former PhD Student of Irrigation and Drainage, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran
2 Professor, Department of Irrigation and Drainage Eng., College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran
3 Assistant professor, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Eng., College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

AquaCrop model determines the response of plant to degree of soil fertility stress by a simple and semi-quantitative approach. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach to simulate maize growth parameters under different nitrogen application in semi-arid environment of Iran. The experiment was conducted at the research farm of the College of Aburaihan, during two years (2015 and 2016) and without water stress. Five nitrogen (N) treatments were investigated including no nitrogen (N0), 50(N1), 100(N2), 150(N3) and 200 kg N. ha-1 (N4) by Randomized Complete Block design with three replications for each year. Calibration was carried out using the data of N0 and N4 for 2015 and validation was performed with data of remaining treatments in 2015 and whole data of 2016. The accuracy of the model in calibration stage was tested using relative root-mean-square error (RRMSE), coefficient of determination (R2) and mean bias error (MBE), which were about 11.8%, 0.995 and 0.51 ton.ha-1 and 11.8%, 0.988, -1.02 ton.ha-1 for estimating  biomass development in the N0 and N4 treatments, respectively. The RRMSE, R2 and MBE values for validation treatments were obtained as 19.06 %, 0.920, 0.92 ton.ha-1 for grain yield and 5.32%, 0.975, 0.41 ton.ha-1 for final biomass yield, respectively. The results show that calibrated model estimates soil water content and water productivity in different treatment accurately. Nevertheless, It is demonstrated that AquaCrop was not able to simulate development of biomass and CC precisely during growing season, but it is more accurate in estimating final biomass and grain yield. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • AquaCrop
  • Calibration and Validation
  • Fertilization Stress
  • Simulation of Plant Growth
رنجبر،آ. 1395. شبیه­سازی توامان آب، نیتروژن و عملکرد محصول به منظور تعیین شاخص تغذیه نیتروژن در دوره رشد ذرت. رساله دکتری، پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت.
Ahmadi,S.H., Mosallaeepour,E., Kamgar-Haghighi,A.K  and Sepaskhah,A.R., 2015.  Modeling maize yield and soil water content with AquaCrop under full and deficit irrigation managements. Water Resources Management. 29: 2837-2853.
Akumaga,U., Tarhule,A and Yusuf,A.A. 2017. Validation and testing of the FAO AquaCrop model under different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on rainfed maize in Nigeria, West Africa. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 232: 225–234.
Allen,R.G., Pereira,L.S.,  Raes, D and Smith,M. 1998. Crop Evapotranspiration-Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements, Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, Rome, Italy, 300 pp.
Andarzian,B., Bannayan,M.,  Steduto,P.,  Mazraeh,H., Barati,M.E and Rahnama,A. 2011. Validation and testing of the AquaCrop model under full and deficit irrigated wheat production in Iran. Agricultural Water Management. 100: 1-8.
Ata-Ul-Karim,S.T., Yao,X.,  Liu, X., Cao,W and Zhu,Y. 2014. Determination of Critical Nitrogen Dilution Curve Based on Stem Dry Matter in Rice. PLoS ONE. 9.8:1-12
Geerts,S and Raes,D. 2010. Using AquaCrop to derive deficit irrigation schedules. Agricultural Water Management. 98: 213-216.
Heng,L.K., Hsiao,T., Evett,S., Howell,T and Steduto,P. 2009. Validating the FAO AquaCrop model for irrigated and water deficient field maize. Agronomy Journal. 101: 488–498.
Hsiao,T.C.,  Heng,L.,  Steduto,P.,  Rojas-lara,B., Raes,D and Fereres,E. 2009. AquaCrop the FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: III. Parameterization and testing for maize. Agronomy Journal. 101: 448–459.
Jamieson,P.D., Porter,J.R and Wilson,D.R. 1991. A test of the computer simulation model ARCWHEAT1 on wheat crops grown in New Zealand. Field Crops Research. 27: 337–350.
Liu,W.Z and Zhang,X. 2007. Optimizing water and fertilizer input using an elasticity index: a case study with maize in the loess plateau of china. Field Crops Research. 100: 302-310.
Mousavizadeh,S.F., Honar,T and Ahmadi,S.H. 2016. Assessment of the AquaCrop Model for simulating Canola under different irrigation managements in a semiarid area. International Journal of Plant Production. 10.4:425- 445
Myers,R.J.K.  2005. Helping small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics: Linking participatory research, traditional research and simulation modelling. In Nutrient and Water Management Practices for Increasing Crop Production in Rainfed Arid/Semi-Arid Areas – Proceedings of a Coordinated Research Project. IAEA-TECDOC 1468. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 127–137.
Patrignani,A and Ochsner,T.E. 2015. Canopeo: A Powerful New Tool for Measuring Fractional Green Canopy Cover. Agronomy Journal. 107.6: 2312-2320.
Raes,D., Steduto,P., Hsiao, T.C and  Fereres,E. 2012. AquaCrop Reference Manual, AquaCrop version 4.0. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Raes,D., Steduto,P., Hsiao,T.C and Fereres,E. 2009. AquaCrop – the FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: II. Main algorithms and software description. Agronomy Journal. 101: 438–447.
Steduto,P., Hsiao,T.C., Raes,D and Fereres,E. 2009. AquaCrop: The FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: I. Concepts and underlying principles. Agronomy Journal. 101: 426–437.
Steduto,P and Alberizio,R. 2005. Resource use efficiency of field-grown sunflower, sorghum, wheat and chickpea: II. Water use efficiency and comparison with radiation use efficiency. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 130: 269–281.
Van Gaelen,H., Tsegay,A., Delbecque,N., Shrestha,N., Garcia,M., Fajardo,H., Miranda, R., Vanuytrecht,E., Abrha,B., Diels,J and Raes,D. 2014. Asemi-quantitative approach for modelling crop response to soil fertility: evaluation of the Aqua crop procedure. Journal of Agricultural Science. 1–16.
Yuan,M., Zhang,L., Gou,L., Su,Z., Spiertz,J.H.J and Van der Werf,W. 2013. Assessment of crop growth and water productivity for five C3 species in semi-arid Inner Mongolia. Agricultural Water Management. 122: 28– 38.