روش ترکیبی تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره تاپسیس با آنتروپی برای رتبه بندی کیفیت و ریسک آلودگی آب های زیرزمینی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه ولیعصر (عج) رفسنجان، ایران

چکیده

در این مطالعه، کیفیت شرب آب زیرزمینی 36 چاه واقع در آبخوان شهربابک و رتبه‌بندی چاه‌های آب با استفاده از دو روش شاخص کیفیت آب (WQI) و روش جدید ترکیبی TOPSIS با تئوری آنتروپی (ETOPSIS) بررسی شده است. در فرآیند محاسبه WQI، معمولاً از وزن‌های تجربی برای هر پارامتر شیمیایی استفاده می‌شود و پارامترهای دارای وزن‌های کم و غلظت‌های زیاد و یا برعکس، ارزش ارزیابی را کاهش می‌دهند و به همین دلیل روش ترکیبی ETOPSIS تدوین شده است. در روش ETOPSIS، وزن هر پارامتر با روش وزن‌دهی آنتروپی محاسبه و با نرمال‌سازی همه پارامترهای شیمیایی مورد استفاده، تأثیر همه پارامترها در رتبه کیفی چاه‌ها لحاظ می‌شود. همچنین در این مطالعه، اولویت‌بندی ریسک آلودگی چاه‌ها با استفاده از دو متغیر توالی زمانی هفت ساله آلودگی و احتمال آلودگی انجام شده است. با توجه به نتایج WQI بر اساس استاندارد 1053، بیش از 8 و 17 درصد چاه-ها به ترتیب در طبقات عالی و خوب قرار گرفتند. با روش ETOPSIS، چاه شماره 11 در رتبه اول کیفیت آب (95/0 TC=) قرار گرفت و کمترین ریسک آلودگی را نشان داد اما با روش WQI، این چاه در رتبه چهارم و طبقه خوب (4/54 WQI=) قرار گرفت. بررسی پارامترهای شیمیایی، صحت نتایج ETOPSIS را تأیید کردند. محاسبات وزن‌دهی آنتروپی نشان دادند که پارامترهای غلظت منیزیم و بی‌کربنات با وزن 17/0 بیشرین تأثیر و پارامتر اسدیته با وزن 05/0 کمترین اثر را بر رتبه‌بندی ETOPSIS در آبخوان مورد مطالعه دارند. ریسک آلودگی در قسمت‌های شرقی منطقه کم و با حرکت به سمت غرب و جنوب غربی، ریسک آلودگی زیاد و خطرناک شد. رتبه‌های ریسک آستانه 50 درصد آلودگی حاصل از WQI و ETOPSIS با ضریب تعیین 951/0 به یکدیگر همبسته بودند. طبق نتایج، کاربرد ETOPSIS می‌تواند نتایج مفید و قابل اطمینان‌تری نسبت به WQI بدست دهد و قابل توصیه در مناطق دیگر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Hybridizing of TOPSIS multi criteria decision making technique with entropy for ranking of groundwater quality and groundwater pollution risk

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akram Seifi
  • Fatemeh Soroush
Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this study, the suitability of groundwater quality for drinking proposes and wells ranking have been investigated using two techniques including water quality index (WQI) and hybrid TOPSIS-entropy theory (ETOPSIS) for 36 wells located in Shahr-e-Babak aquifer. During the WQI calculating process, the weight of each parameter is usually given by expert’s experience and chemical parameters with low weights but high concentration values (or vice versa) reduces evaluation stability. So, the hybrid ETOPSIS method has been developed. In ETOPSIS method, the weight of each parameter is calculated using entropy-based weighting approach. Also, normalizing each single parameter in ETOPSIS is to consider the effect of each qualitative parameter besides their overall influence in ranking of wells. Also in this study, pollution risk-based prioritization of wells has been applied according to time consequences of pollution in seven years and probability of pollution for the first time. According to WQI results based on 1053 standard, over 8 and 17 % of wells were in the class of "excellent" and "good" quality, respectively. Using ETOPSIS technique, the well number 11 ranked as the best and first well that had lowest pollution risk (TC = 0.95), but this well achieved the forth rank and classified as well with “good” water quality by WQI method (WQI = 54.4). Investigation of chemical parameters confirmed the validity of the ETOPSIS results. Calculation of entropy weighting showed that concentration of Mg and HCO3 with same entropy weight equal to 0.17 have highest impact and pH with entropy weight equal to 0.05 has minimal influence on the ETOPSIS ranking. The low pollution risk recognized in Eastern parts of study region, but it was high and dangerous in West and Southern west. The wells risk ranks that obtained from WQI and ETOPSIS based on 50 % pollution threshold were correlate with R2 = 0.951. Based on the results indicate that application of ETOPSIS could produce useful and more reliable results than WQI.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Prioritization
  • Shahr-e-Babak aquifer
  • Time consequences of pollution
  • Water Quality Index
  • Zoning
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