مدیریت رطوبت با مدل HYDRUS 2D/3D برای تعیین عمق و فاصله زهکش‌ها در کشت دوم شالیزار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری،

2 مهندسی آب دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی ساری

3 دانشیار، دانشگاه شهرکرد، تخصص: مدل‌سازی گیاهی و تنش‌های آبی مباحث نوین در زهکشی

چکیده

تخلیه آب اضافی ناحیه ریشه از اهداف اجرای سیستم‌های زهکشی است. در این پژوهش مدل HYDRUS 2D/3D برای مدیریت انتقال رطوبت در تعیین عمق و فاصله زهکش ها برای کشت دوم اراضی شالیزاری دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری در سه سال زراعی (1396-1393 ) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. مزرعه الف دارای دو زهکش با عمق 90 سانتی متر و فاصله 30 متری و مزرعه ب دارای زهکش هایی در عمق های 90، 65، 90 سانتی متری با فاصله 15 متری بود. مدل نسبت به پارامتر تجربی خاک آنالیز حساسیت شد. نتایج نشان داد که مدل HYDRUS نسبت به رطوبت حجمی اشباع دارای حساسیت زیاد می باشد. سناریوهایی شامل: اعمال زهکش میانی در 1- عمق 40، 2- عمق 90، 3- دو زهکش میانی در عمق 40 و 4- دو زهکش میانی در عمق 65 سانتی متری برای مزرعه الف تعریف شد. بیشترین کاهش رطوبت در سناریوی چهار 75/18 درصد و کمترین 22/0 درصد در سناریوی یک رخ داد. سناریوی سه، دو روز و سناریوی چهار، چهار روز نسبت به مزرعه ب رطوبت لایه اول را زودتر تخلیه و به ظرفیت زراعی رساند. سناریوی چهار بهترین و سناریوی یک ضعیف‌ترین نتایج را نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Soil moisture management for determination of depth and space of drainages insecond cropping of paddy by using HYDRUS 2D/3D Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • PEYMAN MOKHTARI MOTLAGH 1
  • Ali Shahnazari 2
  • Mohammad reza Nouri emamzadei 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Water Engineering, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari - Iran
2 Sanru
3 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord - Iran
چکیده [English]

Depletion of excess soil moisture from root zone is one of the objectives of the implementation of drainage systems. In this study the ability of HYDRUS 2D/3D model to soil moisture transport management for determining of depth and space of drains in second cropping of paddy fields of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University in For the three growing season (2014-2017) is assessed. So, two kinds of fields were constructed: Field A with subsurface drainage systems and drain depth of 0.9 m and drain spacing of 30 m and field B having drain spacing of 15 m and alternate drain depths of 90, 65 and 90 cm. Sensitivity analysis and calibration were first performed with the aim of verifying the HYDRUS model. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the software had maximum sensitivity to the saturated volumetric water content. Four scenarios were considered for field A in HYDRUS model which consist of: middle drain in 1- the depth of 40, 2- in the depth of 90, 3- two middle drains in the drain of 40 and 4- two middle drains of 65 cm. Scenario 4, 3, 2 in field B and scenario 1 showed the maximum of soil moisture depletion respectively. The maximum loss of soil moisture was observed in scenario 4 by 18.75 percent and minimum loss of soil moisture was occurred in scenario 1 by 0.22 percent. Also, evaluation of results showed that scenario 3 and scenario 4 depleted the soil moisture during the period of 2-days and 4-days, respectively earlier in respect to of first level of soil and reached to field capacity. Also, results showed that scenario 4 is the best in contrast to scenario 1 which has the worst.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Field capacity
  • Plough layer
  • Scenario
  • Water level
عباسی، ف. ۱۳۹۲. فیزیک خاک پیشرفته. چاپ دوم. دانشگاه تهران:  موسسه انتشارات و چاپ دانشگاه تهران، 250 ص.

گلابی، م.، الباجی، م.، ناصری، ع. 1396. ارزیابی مدل HYDRUS-1D در پیش­بینی هدایت الکتریکی و یون­های پروفیل خاک (مطالعه موردی؛ کشت نیشکر تحت تنش شوری). نشریه علوم آب و خاک علوم و فنون کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی. 21. 3: 231-241.

مختاری مطلق، پ.، شاهنظری، ع.، نوری امامزاده­ئی، م.ر. 1397. شبیه­سازی رطوبت خاک بین دو زهکش زیرزمینی در اراضی شالیزاری با مدل HYDRUS-2D. نشریه پژوهش آب در کشاورزی. 32. 1: 93-107.

Ahmadi, M. Z. 1999. Use of piezometers to find the depth to impermeable layer in the design of drainage systems. Journal of Hydrological Sciences. 44.1: 25-31.

Aimrun, M., Amin, M. S. M and Eltaib, S. M. 2004. Effective porosity of paddy soils as an estimation of its saturated hydraulic conductivity. Journal of Geo derma. 121: 197–203.

Akay, O., Fox, G.A and Simunek, J. 2008. Numerical simulation of flow dynamics during macropores-subsurface drain interactions using HYDRUS. Vadose Zone. 7.3:909–918.

Darzi, A., Mirlatifi, M., Shahnazari, A., Ejlali, F and Mahdian, M.H., 2012. Influence of surface and subsurface drainage on rice yield and its component in paddy fields. Journal of Water research in agriculture. 26: 1, 61-71.

Darzi-Naftchali, A and Shahnazari, A. 2014. Influence of subsurface drainage on the productivity of poorly drained paddy fields. European Journal of Agronomy, 56:1-8.

Ebrahimian, H and Noory, H. 2015. Modeling paddy field subsurface drainage using HYDRUS -2D. Journal of Paddy and Water Environment. 13.4:477-485.

Ebrahimian, H., Liaghat, A., Parsinejad, M., Abbasi, F and Navabian, M. 2012. Comparison of one- and two dimensional models to simulate alternate and conventional furrow fertigation. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 138.10: 929-938.

Gee, G.W and Bauder, j. w. 1986. Particle size analysis. In: Methods of soil analysis. 2nd ed. Klute, A. (eds). Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA. Madision. WI. 411-383

Jafari-Talukolaee, M., Shahnazari, A., Ahmadi, M. Z. and Darzi-Naftchali, A. 2015. Drain Discharge and Salt Load in Response to Subsurface Drain Depth and Spacing in Paddy Fields. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 141(11):1-7·

Jamal, I. H., Bari, A., Khan, S and Zada, I. 2009. Genetic variation for yield and yield components in rice. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 4:60-64.

Jung, K. Y., Yun, E. S., Park, K. D., Lee, Y. H., Hwang, J. B., Park, C. Y. and Ramos, E. P. 2010. Effect of subsurface drainage for multiple land use in sloping paddy fields. In: 19th Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, Brisbane, Australia.

Kandelous, M. M and Simunek, J. 2010. Comparison of numerical, analytical, and empirical models to estimate wetting patterns for surface subsurface drip irrigation. Journal of Irrigations Science, 28:435-444.

Karandish, F., Darzi-Naftchali, A and Šimůnek, J. 2017. Application of HYDRUS-2D for predicting the influence of subsurface drainage on soil water dynamics in a rainfed-canola cropping system. 13th International Drainage Workshop of ICID, Ahwaz, Iran.

Legates, D. R. and McCabe, G. J. 1999. Evaluating the use of “goodness-of-fit” measures in hydrologic and hydroclimatic model validation. Journal of Water Resources Research. 35:233-241.

Liu, H. F., Genard, M., Guichard, S and Bertin, N. 2007. Model assisted analysis of tomato fruit growth in relation to carbon and water fluxes. J. of Experimental Botany 58.13:3567-3580.

Nash, J.E and J.V. Sutcliffe. 1970. River flow forecasting thorough conceptual models, A discussion of principles. Hydrology. 10:282-290.

Nguyen, D. B. 2007. Irrigation of Paddy Fields in Mekong Delta. Materials, reports and documents of Department of Water Resources, Hanoi Agriculture University, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Ouyang, Y and Boersma, L. 1992. Dynamic oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between soil and atmosphere: II. Model simulations. Journal of Soil Science. 56:1702-1710.

Salehi, A. A., Navabian, M., Varaki, M. E and Pirmoradian, N. 2017.  Evaluation of HYDRUS-2D model to simulate the loss of nitrate in subsurface controlled drainage in a physical model scale of paddy fields. Journal of Paddy and Water Environment. 15.2:433-442.

Simunek, J., Senja, M and Van Ghenuchten, M. Th. 1999. The HYDRUS-2D software package for simulating the two-dimensional movement of water, heat and multiple solutes in variably saturated media, version 2.0, IGWMC-TPS-70, Int. Groundwater Modeling Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Co. 251 P.

Simunek, J., van Genuchten, M and Sejna, M. Th. 2008. Development and applications of the HYDRUS and STANMOD software packages, and related codes. Vadose Zone.7:587–600.

Tabuchi, T. 2004. Improvement of paddy field drainage for mechanization. Journal of Paddy and Water Environment, 2.1:5–10.

Wang, F. X., Kang, Y and Liu, S. P. 2006. Effects of drip irrigation frequency on soil wetting pattern and potato growth in north China Plain. Journal of Agricultural Water Management, 79: 248–264.

Wang, Y., Zhang, B., Lin, L. and Zepp, H. 2011. Agroforestry system reduces subsurface lateral flow and nitrate loss in Jiangxi Province, China. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 140 (3–4), 441–453.

Willmott, C. J. 1982. Some comments on the evaluation of model performance. Journal of American Meteorological Society. 63.11:1309–1313.

Yousfi, A., mechergui, M and Ritzema, H. 2014. A drain-spacing equation that takes the horizontal flow in the unsaturated zone above the groundwater table into account. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage. 63: 373–382.