ارزیابی خصوصیات کمی گیاه رزماری با استفاده از دو سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای تحت تأثیر اعمال کم‌آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، آّبیاری و زهکشی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه زابل

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه زابل

3 استاد، گروه فارماکوکنوزی، دانشکده داروسازی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان

4 دانشیار، گروه بیوتکنولوژی، پژوهشگاه علوم و تکنولوژی پیشرفته و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه تحصیلات تکمیلی صنعتی و فناوری پیشرفته کرمان

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی ویژگی‌های کمی گیاه دارویی رزماری در شرایط کاربرد دو سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای تحت تأثیر کم‌آبیاری تنظیم شده و آبیاری ناقص ریشه، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تولید نهال شهرداری کرمان در سال زراعی 1395 اجرا شد. در این تحقیق، دو سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای (سطحی و زیرسطحی) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و پنج سطح آبیاری شامل آبیاری کامل (تأمین کامل کمبود رطوبت خاک تا حد ظرفیت زراعی)، کم‌آبیاری تنظیم شده و آبیاری ناقص ریشه هر کدام در دو سطح 75 و 55 درصد آبیاری کامل به‌عنوان عامل فرعی مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای زیرسطحی نسبت به آبیاری قطره‌ای سطحی علاوه بر صرفه‌جویی 4/11 درصدی در مصرف آب، باعث افزایش 21 درصدی بهره‌وری آب شد. همچنین بیشترین وزن خشک اندام هوایی (2/4404 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، ارتفاع بوته (4/68 سانتی‌متر)، تعداد شاخه زایا (7/128) و شاخص سطح برگ در مزاحل مختلف رشد، در سطح تأمین کامل کمبود رطوبت خاک در آبیاری قطره‌ای زیرسطحی بدست آمد. تأمین 75 درصد آبیاری کامل در شرایط آبیاری ناقص ریشه در سیستم زیرسطحی باعث افزایش تمامی شاخص‌های رشد گیاه نسبت به تأمین 75 درصد آبیاری کامل در شرایط کم‌آبیاری تنظیم شده در سیستم زیرسطحی شد. این‌در حالی بود که تأمین 75 درصد آبیاری کامل در شرایط آبیاری ناقص ریشه در سیستم زیرسطحی در حالی صرفه‌جویی 25 درصدی در مصرف آب و افزایش 8/12 درصدی بهره‌وری آب را در پی داشت که کاهش 3/5 درصدی وزن خشک اندام رویشی، 9/8 درصدی تعداد شاخه زایا و 8/9 درصدی ارتفاع بوته را نسبت به تأمین کامل کمبود رطوبت خاک در سیستم زیرسطحی رقم زد. با بررسی هم‌زمان بهره‌وری آب و خصوصیات رشد گیاه دارویی رزماری، می‌توان به این نتیجه رسید که با تأمین 75 درصد آبیاری کامل در شرایط آبیاری ناقص ریشه در سیستم زیرسطحی، علاوه بر صرفه‌جویی در مصرف آب و افزایش بهره‌وری آب، با کم‌ترین کاهش در پارامترهای رشد گیاه مواجه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of quantitative traits of Rosmarinus officinalis L. with use of two drip irrigation systems Influenced by deficit irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • rasoul Asadi 1
  • Farzad Hassan Pour 2
  • Mitra Mehrabani 3
  • Amin Baghizadeh 4
  • Fatemeh Karandish 2
1 PhD student, Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Water and Soil, Zabol University
2 Associate Professor, Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Water and Soil, Zabol University
3 Department of Pharmacognozy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of two drip irrigation systems and deficit irrigation on the quantitative traits of Rosmarinus officinalis L., an experiment was conducted in Kerman Municipality seedling production station in 2016. The experimental treatments were laid out in split plot a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes (full irrigation (FI-100), regulated deficit (RDI75 and RDI55) and partial root zone drying irrigation (PRD75 and PRD55)) in main plot and two drip irrigation systems (S1= surface and S2= subsurface) in sub plot. The results showed that applying of subsurface drip irrigation system compared to use of surface drip irrigation, in addition to saving 11.4 percent in water use, increased the water productivity 21 percent. Also, the highest herbage dry weight (4404.2 kg.h-1), plant height (68.4 cm), number of shoots (128.7) and leaf area index in different stages of growth were produced by S2FI. Using S2PRD75 compared to use of S2RDI75, increased all of the Rosmarinus plant growth parameters. However, Using S2PRD75 compared to use S2FI in addition to saving 25 percent in water use, increased the water productivity 12.8 percent and dry weight, number of shoots per plant and height of plant decreased 5.3, 8.9 and 9.8 percent respectively. Simultaneous analysis of Rosmarinus’s water productivity and its growth parameters showed that it could be possible to save in irrigation water use and increase the water productivity with the lowest decrease in the Rosmarinus plant growth parameters by applying S2PRD75.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Kerman
  • Leaf area index
  • Medicinal plant
  • Partial Root Zone Drying Irrigation
  • Water productivity
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